Magnetic Treatment of Water

Hydrogen is the lightest and most basic element known to man. With its simple structure comprised of only one proton and one electron, it is one of the major constituents of all hydrocarbon based fuels. By studying the response of hydrogen with respect to magnetic fields and the accompanying increased energy output, much can be learned and applied to other related fuels.

In the oxidation/combustion of hydrocarbon fuels, it is the outer shell of the hydrogen that is combusted first.

Hydrogen, the first element of the chemical periodic chart, has the atomic number 1 and the atomic weight 1.0079. Since it possesses only one electron, it has the valence of positive 1. Even though hydrogen is the simplest of all elements, it possesses two distinctive forms: ortho-hydrogen and para-hydrogen. To secure conversion of para to ortho state, it is necessary to change the energy of interaction between nuclear spins. The molecules of the two gases, para and ortho-hydrogen differ in the relative orientation of the nuclear spins of the two protons. In para molecules the spins of the protons are anti-parallel, while in the ortho molecule the spins are parallel. The para molecules occupy the even rotational levels, and the ortho molecules occupy the odd levels.

The orientations of the spins have a pronounced effect on the behavior of the molecule. In fact, ortho-hydrogen is unstable and more reactive than its para-hydrogen counterpart. The liquid hydrogen fuel that is used to power the space shuttle is stored in the para-hydrogen form, which is less volatile.

A utility patent was awarded to Simon Ruskin, 3228 868, which relates the means by which hydrogen rocket fuel can be converted from para-hydrogen to orthohydrogen through the application of a magnetic field. Note that under U.S.C. 35 section 101, any utility patent must be proven scientifically operable and correct before issuance. Design patents are not subject to the above PTO ruling.

It should be noted that magnets are the prime source of control of the position of electrons. For example, a magnetic coil controls the sweep of our television’s electron gun. We frequently use the term electromagnetism because we can’t separate the effects one field has on the other. Therefore, it shouldn’t be too surprising that chemical reactions which are determined by an element’s valence (the surplus or deficiency in the outer orbital shells of the electrons) are affected by a magnetic field.

Simon Ruskin’s Theory

The subject matter is a method for increasing the energy release of fossil fuels such as coal and petrolium upon combustion.

The process of treating a fossil fuel to increase its energy release on subsequent combustion comprising passing said fuel in a fluid suspension under a pressure of about 150 to about 300 psi through a magnetic field of about 10,000 Gauss for a time sufficient to substantially increase the diamagnetic properties of said fuel. Generally stated, the specification describes a number of transformations which occur in the molecular structure of fossil fuels when exposed to a magnetic field having a strength of about 5,000-10,000 Gauss either alone or in conjunction with gamma irradiation.

To accomplish my invention I proceed to disrupt the colloidal masses and subject these particles to diamagnetic dispersion so that they become milled to particles of 2 to 4 microns. By this procedure of diamagnetic milling, a substantial part of the symmetrical molecular structures become antisymmetrical and at this stage greatly enhanced release of energy occurs during combustion. To secure a still greater combustion effect, I may irradiate these small particles with gamma irradiation from an isotope source. Irradiation from 1 million R to 400 million R or more may be employed with increasing energy availability on combustion.

In effecting combustion of these carbon compounds, I secure free orbital circulation of the electrons and with it higher thermal activity. To do this I try to create the most favorable conditions for molecular rearrangements and atomic nuclear rearrangements. Generally, one thinks of the nucleus as strongly coupled to both electron spin and electron orbital motion. These effects are secondary in molecules because the chemical bonds suppress the free orbital circulation of the electrons and pair off the electron spins. Under the influence of my diamagnetic dispersion, a slight shift in resonance frequency is produced which may also be called a chemical shift, depending on the bonding, particularly in the presence of pi bonding. The electron spin coupling leads to an indirect spin coupling of one nucleus with other nuclei in the same molecule and may be manifested through structure on the resonance lines. Chemical shifts also depend on such nuclear electronic environment as the ionic character of the chemical bonds and the magnetic anisotropy of the molecules. The electrostatic interacting will also produce paramagnetic shifts, particularly those caused by hydrogen bonding. Under these conditions, chemical interactions occur with even explosive violence and great liberation of energy. One might in a way compare it with a more controlled release of atomic and molecular energy.

The increased reactivity also leads to the ready formation of peroxides with high release of energy. Thus anthracine derivatives readily form, under the conditions of my process, peroxides with oxygen, particularly in the 9-10 position.

Thus by inducing as much as possible a disordered solid state, I enhance the thermal combustion value of my fossil fuel to a very great extent.

In considering the thermochemistry of the molecule, it is known that the heat of combustion of a C–C bond is 50.8 kg. cal. per mole, while that of a C=C bond is 118.8, and of a C–H bond 53.3 kg. cal. per mole. Under the diamagnetic effect induced by my process, loosely bound electrons which have no fixed position, introduce into the molecule a degree of resonance that enhances the heat of combustion. Thus abnormally high diamagnetic anisotropy is attained and the diamagnetic currents are not restricted to single atoms but circulate along orbits of considerable length. In this fashion these molecules are closely analogous to supraconductors [sic].

It is well known that the orthopara hydrogen conversion is catalyzed at a measurable, and sometimes fairly high, rate by substances which are considered to be diamagnetic. The rapid conversion by charcoal is one example, and the slow but measurable conversion by supposedly pure lanthana is another. There have been some claims that the susceptibility of lanthana changes with the method of preparation, but the results have been disputed. These effects have led to the idea that some diamagnetic solids might possess a kind of “surface paramagnetism.” Actually this is less mysterious than might be suspected. Charcoal has been shown by paramagnetic resonance to possess strong absorptions corresponding to unpaired electrons, and Sandler has shown that the ortho-para hydrogen conversion on titanium dioxide, which is diamagnetic, is due to some superficial reduction to the paramagnetic sesquioxide. It is probable that all examples of so-called surface paramagnetism may be rationalized by some such explanation as those given.

The possibility that a magnetic field might have an effect on chemical reactivity has received attention for many years. Although some interesting effects had been reported, until very recently none contributed very much to our understanding of either magnetism or chemical kinetics. Earlier work has been reviewed by the writer and will be described here very briefly. There are theoretical reasons for believing that a magnetic field of sufficient intensity might influence the velocity and equilibrium for certain types of reactions. These types are those such as, for instance, the reduction of chromate to cromic ion by a sugar, in which a substantial change of magnetic susceptibility occurs.

We are not here dealing with an esoteric type of invention where operability strains the credibility of one of ordinary skill in the art. Rather, appellant asserts merely that the energy release of fossil fuels may be increased through the application of known scientific principles. In this concept there are no scientific mysteries. I cannot state one reason why it is not to be believed. The majority, while alluding to the “state of the art,” fails to state any reason why the process disclosed is not operable. In the absence of any such reason, I think it unreasonable to require appellant to build a plant in order to develop data to submit in support of his position. I believe one of ordinary skill in the arts most directly related to the claimed invention would find the statements in the specification to be scientifically credible and would consider the claimed invention to be operable.

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